Table 1

Participants, their conditions and medication usage.

NameAge (years)ConditionDuration (years)Medication/current dosageInitiatorLaxativesPain clinicAdjuncts
 Alice73Multiple sclerosis5Fentanyl 100 mcg/hourGPNoNoSSRI, AE
 Belinda34Chronic back pain6Morphine elixir 60 mg/dayGPNoYesSSRI, TCA, NSAID, AC
 Charles63Chronic back pain12Morphine S/R 60 mg/dayGPNoYesSSRI, TCA, NSAID
 Douglas74Spinal stenosis2Fentanyl 75 mcg/hourConsultantNoNoTCA, AE
 Edwina70Chronic back pain1Morphine S/R 60 mg/dayGPYesNoNil
 Frances69Chronic back pain14Morphine S/R 60 mg/dayConsultantYesYesNil
 Grace63Chronic back pain12Morphine S/R 30 mg/dayGPYesYesTCA
 Harry61Complex regional pain syndrome3Morphine S/R and Morphine tablets 30 mg/dayConsultantNoYesNil
 Ian71Chronic pancreatitis28Fentanyl patch 50 mcg/hourGPNoNoNil
 Julian61Chronic shoulder pain10Morphine S/R 100 mg/dayGPNoYesNSAID, TCA
Focus group
 Katherine51Chronic neck pain9Buprenorphine S/L 1200 mcg/dayGPNoNoTCA, NSAID
 Laura76Rheumatoid arthritis25Morphine S/R 60 mg/dayConsultantYesNoTCA, NSAID
 Brian56Chronic back and ankle pain20Morphine S/R 80 mg/dayGPYesYesSSRI
 Mike47Chronic back and ankle pain15Fentanyl patch 50 mcg/hourGPNoYesSSRI
  • AC = Anticonvulsant. AE = Anti-emetic. NSAID = Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. S/L = sub lingual. S/R = slow release. SSRI = Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. TCA = Tricyclic antidepressants.