Table 2

Univariable analyses of selected variables.

VariableControls (n = 1080) n (%)Patient (n = 217) n (%)Positive likelihood ratio (95% CI)
Symptoms:
 Urinary retention33 (15.2)18 (1.7)9.1 (5.2 to 16)
 Hesitancy37 (17.1)21 (1.9)8.8 (5.2 to15)
 Impotence67 (30.9)38 (3.5)8.8 (6.1 to 13)
 Frequency102 (47.0)77 (7.1)6.6 (5.1 to 8.5)
 Nocturia63 (29.0)49 (4.5)6.4 (4.5 to 9.0)
 Haematuria33 (15.2)54 (5.0)3.0 (2.0 to 4.6)
 First presentation, weight loss21 (9.7)48 (4.4)2.2 (1.3 to 3.6)
 Second presentation, weight loss11 (5.0)9 (0.83)6.1 (2.6 to 15)
Examination findings:
 Rectal examination deemed benign enlargement61 (28.1)37 (3.4)8.2 (5.6 to 12)
Rectal examination deemed malignant enlargement41 (18.9)5 (0.5)41 (16 to 100)
Investigations:
 PSA >4 ng/ml132 (60.8)23 (2.1)29 (19 to 43)
 PSA >2 ng/ml133 (61.3)35 (3.2)19 (13 to 27)
  • All the variables were more common in cases: P-values <0.001 for all except for the first presentation with loss of weight, with P = 0.002 (conditional logistric regression).