Table 1

Characteristics associated with risk of social isolation.

DomainSocially isolated (%)(total n = 397)Not socially isolated (%) (total n = 2201)χ2 (df)P-value
Aged 65–74 years (n = 1493)183 (46.1)1310 (59.5)24.79, (1)0.001
Aged 75 years and over (n = 1105)214 (53.9)891 (40.5)
Female225/397 (56.7)1190/2201 (54.1)0.92 (1)0.340
Basic education only269/386 (69.7)1349/2172 (62.1)8.10 (1)0.004
State pension only144/388 (37.1)729/2166 (33.7)1.75 (1)0.190
Depressed mood117/392 (29.8)305/2193 (13.9)61.85 (1)0.001
Impaired memory71/369 (19.2)183/2139 (8.6)39.48 (1)0.001
Two or more chronic conditions242/386 (62.7)1256/2153 (58.3)2.57 (1)0.110
Takes four or more medicines126/374 (33.7)713/2138 (33.3)0.02 (1)0.900
Difficulty in one or more BADLsa53/393 (13.5)98/2175 (4.5)48.50 (1)0.001
Difficulty in one or more IADLsb197/379 (52.0)775/2123 (36.5)32.41 (1)0.001
Decreased functioning176/366 (48.1)791/2086 (37.9)13.48 (1)0.001
Multiple falls in last 12 months50/368 (13.6)229/2133 (10.7)2.57 (1)0.110
Activity limitation through fear of falling142/380 (37.4)505/2164 (23.3)33.56 (1)0.001
Fair and/or poor healthc143/397 (36.0)500/2201 (22.7)33.95 (1)0.001
Stayed overnight in hospital more than once in last 12 monthsd20/397 (5.0)80/2201 (3.6)1.40 (1)0.240
Visited a doctor more than six times in last 12 monthsd84/397 (21.2)508/2201 (23.1)0.71 (1)0.400
At risk of hospital admissiond154/397 (38.8)874/2201 (39.7)0.12 (1)0.730
Living alone190/387 (49.1)652/2176 (30.0)54.5 (1)0.001
  • a BADL = basic activities of daily living, self-perceived difficulty or need for assistance with: feeding, moving from bed to chair, getting to the toilet, dressing, and bathing).

  • b IADL = instrumental activities of daily living, self-perceived difficulty or need for assistance with: using the telephone, driving or using public transport, shopping, preparing meals, housework, DIY, laundry, taking medication, and managing money.

  • c Out of: excellent, good, fair, poor.

  • d From the HRA–O questionnaire. df = degrees of freedom.