Table 3

Characteristics of cases and matched controls and odds ratios for pneumonia for diseases currently and potentially considered as risk factors for pneumococcal disease, all patients.

Cases (n = 17 172), n (%)Controls (n = 71 399), n (%)Unadjusted OR (95% CI)Adjusteda OR (95% CI)
Current risk factors
 Diabetes1344 (7.8)3847 (5.4)1.54 (1.44 to 1.65)1.36 (1.27 to 1.47)
 Chronic heart disease3239 (18.9)8585 (12.0)1.91 (1.81 to 2.00)1.63 (1.54 to 1.72)
  Ischaemic heart disease2329 (13.6)6984 (9.8)1.54 (1.46 to 1.63)
  CHD, no IHD910 (5.3)1604 (2.2)2.53 (2.31 to 2.76)
 Chronic renal disease203 (1.2)386 (0.5)2.15 (1.81 to 2.56)1.72 (1.43 to 2.07)
 Chronic respiratory disease4468 (26.0)8843 (12.4)2.62 (2.51 to 2.73)2.42 (2.31 to 2.53)
  Treated asthma2329 (13.6)4043 (5.7)2.65 (2.51 to 2.81)
  Untreated asthma504 (2.9)1689 (2.4)1.19 (1.07 to 1.32)
 Asplenia55 (0.3)81 (0.1)2.88 (2.04 to 4.06)2.58 (1.80 to 3.71)
 CSF shunt11 (0.1)20 (0.0)2.24 (1.07 to 4.71)2.17 (1.00 to 4.69)
 Chronic liver disease94 (0.5)175 (0.2)2.24 (1.74 to 2.89)1.87 (1.43 to 2.44)
 Sickle cell or coeliac disease55 (0.3)85 (0.1)2.65 (1.87 to 3.75)2.42 (1.68 to 3.49)
 Cochlear implant0 (0.0)3 (0.0)
 HIV/AIDS22 (0.1)31 (0.0)2.71 (1.50 to 4.90)2.48 (1.34 to 4.58)
 Immunosuppressed776 (4.5)2910 (4.1)1.12 (1.03 to 1.21)1.40 (1.26 to 1.55)
New potential risk factors
 Stroke or TIA1454 (8.5)3583 (5.0)1.86 (1.74 to 1.99)1.63 (1.52 to 1.75)
 Rheumatoid arthritis387 (2.3)821 (1.1)2.02 (1.79 to 2.29)1.84 (1.62 to 2.10)
 Parkinson's disease230 (1.3)513 (0.7)1.87 (1.60 to 2.19)1.82 (1.53 to 2.15)
 Multiple sclerosis85 (0.5)112 (0.2)3.20 (2.40 to 4.26)3.63 (2.70 to 4.88)
 Dementia385 (2.2)674 (0.9)2.41 (2.11 to 2.75)2.45 (2.13 to 2.81)
 Osteoporosis650 (3.8)1578 (2.2)1.84 (1.67 to 2.03)1.57 (1.41 to 1.74)
 Osteoarthritis2310 (13.5)8932 (12.5)1.12 (1.06 to 1.18)
 Any cancer1151 (6.7)2976 (4.2)1.70 (1.58 to 1.82)1.42 (1.30 to 1.56)
  Breast cancer190 (1.1)667 (0.9)1.17 (0.99 to 1.38)
  Colon cancer107 (0.6)361 (0.5)1.23 (0.99 to 1.53)
  Lung cancer107 (0.6)98 (0.1)4.73 (3.58 to 6.25)
  Gastric cancer16 (0.1)48 (0.1)1.38 (0.78 to 2.44)
  Prostate cancer200 (1.2)617 (0.9)1.38 (1.17 to 1.63)
  • a Model includes all current risk factors and any new risk factors with unadjusted odds ratio >1.5, smoking status, Townsend score in quintiles, use of influenza vaccine in last 12 months, use of pneumococcal vaccine in last 5 years (1–14 days, 2–52 weeks, 12–48 months, 49–60 months), number of years of medical records data (5, 6, 7, 8, 9, ≥10). CSF = cerebrospinal fluid. CHD = coronary heart disease. IHD = ischaemic heart disease. OR = odds ratio. TIA = transient ischaemic attack.