Table 2

Univariable and/or multivariable associations between possible predictors and ‘hospitalisation or death within 30 days’ for patients ≥80 years.

VariableNo hospitalisation or death, n (%)Hospitalisation or death, n (%)Univariable OR (95% CI)Multivariable OR (95% CI)
Episodes751109
Demographics
 Age, ≥90 years121 (16.1)22 (20.2)1.3 (0.8 to 2.3)NS
 Sex, males278 (37)46 (42.2)1.4 (0.9 to 2.1)NS
Healthcare usea
 GP visit for pneumonia ≥143 (5.7)16 (14.7)2.2 (1.3 to 3.8)NS
 No hospitalisation651 (86.7)73 (67)ReferenceReference
 Hospitalisation once87 (11.6)21 (19.3)2.1 (1.2 to 3.4)2.1 (1.2 to 3.7)
 Hospitalisation ≥ twice13 (1.7)15 (13.8)8.6 (3.2 to 23.1)7.3 (3.8 to 14.2)
Comorbidity
 None62 (8.3)7 (6.5)0.8 (0.3 to 1.8)NS
 COPD/emphysema/asthma306 (40.7)43 (39.4)0.9 (0.6 to 1.4)NS
 Malignancies140 (18.6)19 (17.4)1.0 (0.6 to 1.9)NS
 Diabetesb100 (13.3)30 (27.5)2.2 (1.3 to 3.9)2.2 (1.3 to 3.7)
 Congestive heart failure240 (32)47 (43.1)1.5 (0.9 to 2.4)NS
 Myocardial infarction69 (9.2)9 (8.3)0.7 (0.3 to 1.5)NS
 Angina pectoris135 (18)30 (27.5)1.5 (0.9 to 2.6)NS
 Stroke88 (11.7)12 (11)1.1 (0.5 to 2.0)NS
 Dementia39 (5.2)8 (7.3)1.7 (0.8 to 3.7)NS
 Neurological diseasec41 (5.5)9 (8.3)1.8 (0.8 to 4.1)NS
 Renal disease17 (2.3)4 (3.7)1.8 (0.6 to 5.1)NS
 Liver disease3 (0.4)1 (0.9)2.2 (0.2 to 21.5)NS
Medication used
 Oral glucocorticoids20 (2.7)12 (11)2.6 (0.7 to 10.3)2.7 (1.1 to 6.2)
 Benzodiazepines or antidepressants209 (27.8)38 (15.4)1.2 (0.7 to 1.9)NS
 Antibiotics <1 monthe47 (6.3)15 (13.8)2.1 (1.2 to 3.7)2.2 (1.1 to 4.1)
Diagnosis
 Acute bronchitis290 (38.6)18 (16.5)ReferenceReference
 Exacerbation of COPD309 (41.1)34 (31.2)1.5 (0.8 to 2.8)1.5 (0.8 to 2.8)
 Pneumonia152 (20.2)57 (52.3)5.2 (2.9 to 9.1)5.7 (3.1 to 10.5)
  • a Healthcare use was measured over the year preceding the diagnosis.

  • b Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus + non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

  • c Stroke, transient ischaemic attack, dementia, and neurological disease in general.

  • d Medication had to be used for ≥1 week at the start of the episode.

  • e The last tablet had to be taken within the previous month. OR = odds ratio. COPD = chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. NS = non significant (P-value>0.05).