Table 1

Description of individually randomised trials (n = 38) as reported by the authors of the trials.

First author, year of publicationStudy subjectInterventionDescription of care in control group
Boivin, 200812Multifactorial strategy of pain management during vaccination to decrease painMultifactorial strategy including pharmacological and non-pharmacological approachesUsual care
Community Pharmacy Medicines Management Project Evaluation Team, 200713Community pharmacy-led medicines management for patients with CHD in primary care to improve secondary preventionConsultation of CHD patients by community pharmacist; recommendations sent to GPUsual care from GP and community pharmacist
Christensen, 200514A composite SQ to enhance recognition and treatment of functional illness in primary care in consecutive patients presenting with a new health problemPatients complete SQ, content disclosed to GPPatients complete SQ, no disclosure to GP
Coppin, 200815Managing ear wax in primary careSelf-treatment with eardrops and bulb syringeRoutine care (ear drops for 2 days, then irrigation in practice)
Crilly, 200516Provision of an educational booklet in adults prescribed thyroxine for primary hypothyroidism to improve adherence in primary careEducational booklet addressing lay health beliefs about medicine takingUsual care
Daley, 200817Feasibility of an exercise intervention for women with postnatal depressionTwo one-to-one exercise consultations by researcherUsual care, consultation at end of study
Dennis, 200918Effect of peer support on prevention of postnatal depression among high-risk womenNo peer supportTelephone-based peer (mother-to-mother) support
Farmer, 200719Impact of self-monitoring of blood glucose in the management of patients with non-insulin-treated diabetesUsual care + blood glucose self-monitoringStandardised usual care (3-monthly measurement of HbA1c)
Gorgels, 200720Reducing psychotropic medication prescription in long-term benzodiazepine usersDiscontinuation letter + taper scheme with/without group psychotherapyDiscontinuation letter + usual care
Green, 200721Treatment of menopausal symptomsTreatment by qualified herbal practitionerWaiting list
Griffiths, 200522Improving self-efficacy in Bangladeshi patients with chronic disease in primary careSelf-management programme provided by Bangladeshi lay tutorsWaiting list
Gruffydd-Jones, 200523The effectiveness of targeted asthma care in general practice using telephone triage6-monthly check-up by telephoneUsual care by 6-monthly check-up via an appointment with asthma nurse
Hamilton, 200724The effect of a patient SCAF on prescribing, adherence and patient satisfactionPatient completes SCAF in waiting room, SCAF given to GP on entry to consultation roomNo SCAF
Hoefman, 200525Feasibility of patient-activated loop records for detecting heart rhythm abnormalities in patients with new episodes of palpitations or light-headedness and normal ECG primary careLoop recorder for a maximum of 4 weeks + usual care from GPUsual care (patients included when routine ECG showed no abnormalities)
Holland, 200726Visits from community pharmacists for patients diagnosed with heart failure after an emergency admission to reduce hospital readmissionsPharmacists provided with copy of discharge letter, home visit by pharmacist within 2 weeks of dischargeUsual care by GP and community pharmacist
Holland, 200527Home-based medication review by local pharmacist in older people discharged from hospital to reduce emergency admissionsPharmacist provided with copy of discharge letter, home-based medication review by pharmacistUsual care by GP and community pharmacist
Hunkeler, 200628Collaborative care intervention for depressed older in primary careProactive depression treatment by depression care manager (nurse), GP, psychiatrist, and liaison GPUsual care
Khunti, 200629Effect of near-patient testing for HbA1c in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus on glycaemic control in primary careRapid test for HbA1c (practices also continued usual follow-up)Routine care (laboratory testing for HbA1c)
Lawton, 200930Effectiveness of a programme of exercise on prescription among relatively inactive women on physical activityBrief physical activity interventionby nurse with 6-month follow-up visit and monthly telephone support over 9 monthsUsual care
Leong, 200631The use of text messaging to improve attendance in primary careReminder via text message or mobile phone call 24–48 hours prior to appointmentNo reminder
Liew, 200932Text messaging reminders to reduce non-attendance in chronic disease follow-upText message or telephone reminderNo reminder
Linschoten, 200933Supervised exercise therapy for patellofemoral pain syndromeStandardised exercise programmeUsual care (‘wait and see’ approach)
Little, 200834Alexander technique lessons, exercise, and massage for chronic and recurrent back painMassage/Alexander technique lessons/exerciseNormal care by GP
Martins, 200935Food incentives to improve completion of tuberculosis treatmentNutritious, culturally appropriate daily meal and food packageRoutine care (nutritional advice)
McMahon, 200736Graduate mental health worker case management of depression in people using antidepressants for more than 2 monthsUsual care + case management from graduate primary care mental health workerUsual care, all prescribed antidepressant
McManus, 200537Improving blood pressure control in primary care by self-monitoringMonthly blood pressure measurement by patient, patient card with target blood pressureUsual care (blood pressure monitoring by GP, information sheet on self-help measures)
Muirhead, 200638Effect of organised and supervised peer support on initiation and duration of breastfeedingNormal breastfeeding support + peer supportNormal breastfeeding support (community midwife first 10 days, thereafter health visitor, breastfeeding support groups and breastfeeding workshops)
Nanchahal, 200939Weight-management intervention for adults with body mass index ≥27 kg/m2Nurse-led weight- management programmeUsual care
Norg, 200640Treatment protocol for male lower urinary tract symptoms to reduce symptomsComprehensive treatment protocol by researcherUsual care by GP
Roberts, 200641Effectiveness of hypnotherapy as a complementary therapy in the primary care management of irritable bowel syndromeUsual practice + five sessions of hypnotherapyUsual practice
Schreuders, 200542Effect of problem-solving treatment for patients with mental health problems on feelings of depression and anxiety, and on attendance ratesProblem-solving treatment by mental health nurseUsual care by GP
Schroeder, 200543Effectiveness of nurse-led adherence support in hypertensive patientsUsual care + blood pressure checks and adherence support sessions by practice nurseUsual care + blood pressure checks at similar intervals as intervention group
Thomas, 200644Acupuncture for persistent non-specific low back painShort course of traditional acupunctureUsual care (NHS treatment according to GP’s assessment of needs)
Thomsen, 200545Effect of preventive health screening and health discussions on primary care utilisation in primary care(1) health screening, or (2) health discussionNo invitation for screening or discussion
van Rijn, 200746Supervised exercises for adults with acute lateral ankle sprainConventional treatment +supervised exercisesConventional treatment (information about mobilisation and home exercises)
Vicens, 200647Structured intervention aimed at withdrawal from long-term benzodiazepine useStandardised interview + stepwise dose reduction by GPUsual care by GP, after being informed of convenience of reducing benzodiazepine use
Wake, 200948Intervention for overweight or obese childrenFour standard consultations targeting change in nutrition, physical activity, and sedentary behaviourNo consultations
Williams, 200549Effectiveness of a nurse-led continence service for individuals reporting urinary symptomsContinence service by specially trained nurseStandard care, individuals provided with leaflet detailing how to access existing continence services or GP
  • CHD = coronary heart disease. ECG = electrocardiogram. SCAF = self-completed agend form. SQ = screening questionnaire.