Table 3

Description of cluster randomised trials (n = 35) as reported by the authors of trials.

First author, year of publicationStudy subjectInterventionDescription of care in control group
Bebb, 200750A treatment algorithm for hypertension in patients with type 2 diabetesTreatment by GP and practice nurse according to algorithm for treatment and monitoring of hypertensionUsual care
Bellon, 200851Effectiveness of a GP intervention to reduce frequent-attender consultations for frequent attendanceGP training session on ‘7 hypotheses + team’ intervention aimed at discovering reasonsNo training GP, GP provides usual care
Cals, 200952Intervention to reduce antibiotic use in lower respiratory tract infectionsReactive protein testing and/or training in enhanced communication skillsUsual care
Cullen, 200653Intervention to support the implementation of clinical guidelines for hepatitis management among current or former drug usersEducational sessions for GP on new guidelines, implementation, and nursing supportUsual care by GP
Davies, 200854Effectiveness of a new intervention for people with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetesStructured group education programme in the communityUsual care
de Groot, 200755Cognitive behavioural therapy to prevent complicated grief among relatives and spouses bereaved by suicideGrief counselling programme by psychiatric nurseCare as usual
Downs, 200656Educational interventions to improve detection and management of dementia in primary care(1) Electronic tutorial for GP, or (2) decision support software, or (3) workshop on appropriate treatmentOnly visited to collect data
Fitzmaurice, 200757Detection of atrial fibrillation in patients aged ≥65 yearsSystematic screening ECG or opportunistic screening (pulse taking taking and ECG if pulse irregular)Primary healthcare team receives no education
Francis, 200958Effect of booklet in primary care consultations on reconsulting and antibiotic prescribingBooklet on respiratory tract infections in children used during consultation and provided as a take-home resourceUsual care
Harmsen, 200559Effect of an education intervention on intercultural communication between GP and patients of mutual understanding and quality of lifeVideotape instruction for patients and training for GPNo intervention
Hayward, 200660Influenza vaccine programme for care home staff to prevent death, morbidity, and health service use among residentsStaff influenza vaccination promoted by lead nursesUsual policy; not actively promoting staff vaccination
Hoddinott, 200961Effectiveness of policy to provide breastfeeding groups for pregnant and breastfeeding mothers on breastfeeding ratesNew breastfeeding groups, provide population coverageNo new breastfeeding groups
Hogg, 200862A comprehensive preventive intervention programme to improve preventive care deliveryMonthly visit of practice by prevention facilitator delivering an intervention strategy aimed at improving preventive careNo facilitator visits
Janssen, 200963Intensive multifactorial treatment for cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetesIntensive treatment of glucose, blood pressure, and lipids, and structured lifestyle educationRoutine care according to 1999 guidelines from the Dutch College of General Practitioners
Jellema, 200564Treatment of low back pain aimed at psychosocial prognostic factorsMinimal intervention strategy aimed at psychosocial prognostic factors by GPUsual care by GP
Kerse, 200865Effectiveness of an activity programme in improving function, quality of life, and falls in older people in residential careGoal setting and activities of daily living programme by visiting gerontology nurse expert with a physiotherapistSocial visits by social gerontologist who discussed and documented social activities and networks
Lester, 200766Effectiveness of primary care mental workers in improving patient satisfactionAccess to mental health workerNo access to mental health worker
Lester, 200967Effect of GP training in first-episode psychosis on referral rates and duration of untreated psychosisEducational intervention for GPs on important symptoms and signs, questioning skills, positive attitudesNo intervention for GPs
Lo Fo, 200668Increasing awareness of intimate partner abuse(1) Full training; focus group and training session on partner abuse, or (2) focus groupNo training or focus group
MacArthur, 200969Effectiveness of an antenatal service on initiation of breast feedingNew community-based antenatal breastfeeding service using peer support workersUsual antenatal care
McNulty, 200870Increasing testing and case detection of ChlamydiaInteractive workshop for GPs + modified laboratory formsNo workshop or modified laboratory forms
McNulty, 200871Improving the appropriateness of laboratory submissions for urinalysis from general practiceInteractive workshop for GPs + modified laboratory formsNo workshop or modified laboratory forms
Middleton, 200672Improving communication in the consultation to increase satisfaction and reduce consultation timeGPs followed workshop to increase awareness of patients' agenda model, patient-completed agenda form with reason for consultation and expectationsNo GP training and/or no patient agenda form
Midlöv, 200673Evaluate whether educational outreach visits to GP practices can affect prescribing of benzodiazepines and antipsychotics to older peopleEducational outreach visits by a physician and pharmacist on prescribing of benzodiazepines and antipsychotic drugs to older patientsNo educational outreach
Morrel, 200974Health visitor training in psychologically informed approaches for depression in postnatal womenHealth visitor training: assessment, identification of depressive symptoms, delivery of cognitive behavioural or a person-centred approachUsual postnatal care by health visitor
Murphy, 200975Improving secondary prevention of heart diseaseTailored care plans for practices and patientsUsual care
Nijs, 200676Effect of family-style mealtimes on nursing home residents' quality of life and healthTable dressing, food services, protocols for staff, residents, and mealtimesUsual pre-plated service
Qureshi, 200777Effect of GP education on adherence to antihypertensive drugs in people >40 years who use antihypertensive drugsCare by GPs specially trained in management of hypertensionUsual care
Sackley, 200978Effects of a physiotherapy and occupational therapy intervention on mobility and activity in care home residentsThree-month physiotherapy and occupational therapy aimed at enhancing mobility and the ability to perform activities of daily living independentlyStandard care equal to that before recruitment
Slade, 200879A standardised assessment of severity to improve the appropriateness of referrals to adult community mental health servicesUsual referral + one-page referrer-rated assessment of mental health problem severityUsual referral
Søndergaard, 200680Multifaceted intervention to improve secondary prevention of ischaemic heart diseaseGPs receive educational outreach on secondary prevention of ischaemic heart diseaseNo educational outreach
van Bruggen, 200881Shared care for type 2 diabetes to decrease cardiovascular risksTreatment according to locally adapted shared care guidelinesTreatment in line with national guidelines
van Marwijk, 200882Effects of intervention programme to improve identification, diagnosis, and treatment of depression in patients aged ≥55 yearsIf depression according to Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) and interview treatment according to guidelines Dutch College of General PractitionersScreening GDS-15 + interview, after that usual care
Vass, 200983Prevention of functional decline in older home-dwelling peopleEducational programme for home visitors and GPsNo educational programme
Wilkes, 200984Open access to hysterosalpingography (HSG) results for the initial management of infertility in general practiceGP has open access to HSG resultsUsual management