Table 1

Characteristics of participating patients with advanced COPD (n = 145)

Characteristicsn (%), unless otherwise stated
Male73 (50.3)
Age, years
 Mean, (SD; range)71.63 (9.7; 32–93)
 ≤6023 (15.9)
 61–7032 (22.1)
 71–8067 (46.2)
 ≥8123 (15.9)
Marital status
 Married/living with partner54 (37.2)
 Divorced/separated20 (13.8)
 Widowed48 (33.1)
 Single23 (15.9)
Number in the household
 168 (46.9)
 260 (41.4)
 ≥316 (11)
Ethnicity
 White134 (92.4)
 All black groups8 (5.6)
 Indian2 (1.4)
 Other1 (0.7)
Employment activity
 Retired116 (80)
 Unable to work (due to illness)17 (11.7)
 In paid work4 (2.8)
 Full-time working at home (looking after dependants)8 (5.5)
 Ever in paid employment or self-employed135 (93.1)
Last job
 Manager13 (9)
 Foreman/supervisor11 (7.6)
 Employee97 (66.9)
 Self-employed16 (11)
 Not applicable7 (4.8)
Education
 Education after 16 years14 (9.7)
 University degree or equivalent9 (6.2)
Smoking
 Ever smoked140 (97)
 Smoker at time of interview50 (34.5)
Living arrangements
 Own home30 (20.7)
 Rented home105 (72.4)
 Home of relative2 (1.4)
 Other6 (4.1)
Index of multiple deprivation (IMD)
 Mean (SD; range)a36.7(9.7–59)
 Mean IMD for Lambeth and Southwark (SD; range)34.1(7.1–59)
Cared for now due to illness/disability or old age
 Yes, by person in the household65 (44.8)
 Yes, by person not in the household43 (29.7)
Lung function
Mean percentage of predicted FEV129.1
 (SD; range; 95% CI)(9.5; 9–78b; 13 to 45)
Mean FEV1/FVC0.4
 (SD; Range; 95% CI)(0.11; 0.15–0.76c; 0.22 to 0.58)
  • FEV1 = forced expiratory volume in first second. FVC = forced vital capacity. IMD = Index of Multiple Deprivation. SD = standard deviation.

  • a National mean IMD in 2007 was 21.6; the higher the IMD the greater the deprivation.

  • b Subject with % expected of 78% was aged 93 years, with FEV1 of 0.7 l, FEV1/height2 = 0.33.

  • c Five subjects with FEV1/FVC >0.7 had FEV1 less than 0.87 l (4 <0.53 l), and none could sustain forced expiration due to frailty.