Table 4.

Prescription-level univariate models of risks associated with prescribing or monitoring errors: unadjusted and adjusted for patient clustering

FactorUnivariate unadjusted modela (model 3)Univariate adjusted modelb (model 4)
Odds ratio95% CIP-valueOdds ratio95% CIP-value
Medication on monitoring list3.322.56 to 4.30<0.0013.572.68 to 4.75<0.001
Repeat prescriptionc1.401.10 to 1.780.0061.391.08 to 1.790.011
Formulationd
  Eye/ear drops2.011.21 to 3.330.0072.081.20 to 3.590.009
  Inhalers0.410.21 to 0.810.0100.400.20 to 0.790.009
  Injections0.510.24 to 1.100.4470.510.23 to 1.110.091
  Liquid oral0.820.49 to 1.380.0870.800.46 to 1.380.414
  Rectal0.800.11 to 5.950.8270.970.12 to 7.720.973
  Topical0.980.70 to 1.370.9051.000.70 to 1.430.992
Prescriber typee
  Salaried GP0.620.41 to 0.950.0260.640.4 1 to 1.000.051
  Locum GP1.070.56 to 2.050.8351.120.55 to 2.270.760
  Training GP1.360.68 to 2.710.3801.340.63 to 2.850.441
  Non-medical prescriber0.990.31 to 3.170.9820.870.25 to 3.060.832
  Other/unknown1.940.59 to 6.410.2771.780.50 to 6.430.358
British National Formulary chapterf
  Cardiovascular system5.532.66 to 11.49<0.001
  Respiratory system1.580.65 to 3.840.315
  CNS2.060.94 to 4.490.07
  Infections2.371.07 to 5.240.034
  Endocrine2.871.23 to 6.730.015
  Obstetrics, gynaecology, urinary tract disorders1.090.33 to 3.660.887
  Malignant disease and immunosuppression14.003.84 to 51.07<0.001
  Nutrition and blood1.170.35 to 3.920.803
  Musculoskeletal6.382.87 to 14.21<0.001
  Eye6.612.74 to 15.92<0.001
  Ear nose and oropharynx3.501.29 to 9.500.014
  Skin3.521.63 to 7.590.001
  Immunology and vaccines2.180.74 to 6.370.155
Computer systemg
  EMIS PCS1.150.87 to 1.530.3221.170.83 to 1.640.371
  Isoft Premiere0.670.45 to 0.980.0400.640.40 to 1.000.051
  TPP1.130.79 to 1.630.5071.060.68 to 1.650.812
  • CNS = central nervous system.

  • a Model unadjusted for clustering by patient.

  • b Model adjusted for clustering by patient.

  • c Acute prescriptions.

  • d Solid oral medication (pessaries category omitted).

  • e GP partner.

  • f Gastrointestinal (anaesthesia chapter omitted).

  • g EMIS LV.