Table 2

Characteristics of participants aged 30 to 84 years in the QResearch development and THIN validation cohorts

Risk predictorQResearch6THIN (external validation)Overall (n = 2 150 322)
Development (n = 2 364 571)Internal validation (n = 1 243 740)Females (n = 1 082 730)Males (n = 1 067 592)
Median age, years (standard deviation)50.1 (15.0)50.1 (14.9)49 (15.1)47 (14.2)48(14.7)
Smoking status, n (%)
  Non-smoker1 200 385 (50.8)627 868 (50.5)488 238 (45.1)373 3991 (35.0)861 629 (40.1)
  Ex-smoker426 697 (18.0)228 970 (18.4)139 815 (12.9)172 404 (16.2)312 219 (14.5)
  Current smoker, amount not recorded71 668 (3.0)39 438 (3.2)150 891 (13.9)133 753 (12.5)284 644 (13.2)
  Light smoker (<10/day)149 044 (6.3)80402 (6.5)68 449 (6.3)65 757 (6.2)134 206 (6.2)
  Moderate smoker (10–19/day)180 887 (7.6)96 443 (7.8)103 501 (9.6)101 098 (9.5)204 599 (9.5)
  Heavy smoker (≥20/day)135 113 (5.7)74 140 (6.0)73 023 (6.7)111 223 (10.4)184 246 (8.6)
  Smoking status not recorded200 777 (8.5)96 479 (7.8)58813 (5.4)109 966 (10.3)168 779 (7.8)
Medical history, n (%)
  Type 2 diabetes78 687 (3.3)41 869 (3.4)31 172 (2.9)39 081 (3.7)70 253 (3.3)
  Chronic pancreatitis2208 (0.1)1206 (0.1)880 (0.1)1212 (0.1)2092 (0.1)
Current symptoms and symptoms in the preceding year, n (%)
  Current appetite loss10 351 (0.4)5567 (0.4)3444 (0.3)2658 (0.3)6102 (0.3)
  Current weight loss26 239 (1.1)14 686 (1.2)15 980 (1.5)13 484 (1.3)29 464 (1.4)
  Current abdominal pain232 586 (9.8)129 924 (10.4)148 290 (13.7)106 768 (10.0)255 058 (11.9)
  Current abdominal distension7985 (0.3)4929 (0.4)4457 (0.4)6456 (0.3)
  Current dysphagia15 648 (0.7)8507 (0.7)9326 (0.9)20 152 (0.9)
  Constipation in the last year15 094 (0.6)8476 (0.7)5326 (0.5)13 523 (0.6)