Table 2.

PPVs for clinical features of bladder cancer in patients aged ≥60 years, in combination with visible or non-visible haematuria

Clinical featurePPV (95% CI) for feature when presented with:
Visible haematuriaNon-visible haematuria
Dysuria4.1 (2.6 to 6.3)4.5
Abdominal pain2.3 (1.5 to 3.5)1.7 (0.6 to 4.2)
Constipation2.2 (1.5 to 3.4)2.0
Urinary tract infection2.2 (1.8 to 2.8)1.4 (0.8 to 2.4)
Raised white cell count3.7 (2.1 to 6.3)3.9
Raised inflammatory markers3.3 (2.0 to 5.4)1.3
Raised creatinine2.9 (2.1 to 3.9)1.1 (0.6 to 2.2)
  • PPV = positive predictive value. 95% CIs have not been calculated when any cell in the 2×2 table was <5 (invariably because too few controls had both features).