Table 2.

Burnout, work engagement, mindfulness, and empathy at pre- and post-treatment of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), and control condition

TimeMBSR (n = 43)aControl (n = 20)aDifference between groups, post-treatment (95% CI)bCohen’s d type effect size
Emotional exhaustion (UBOS)pre-13.17 (1.10)12.44 (1.28)−0.28 (−2.88 to 2.32)0.04
post-12.57 (1.08)12.11 (1.30)
Depersonalisation (UBOS)pre-5.43 (0.49)4.41 (0.59)−1.42 (−2.72 to −0.21)c0.41
post-4.82 (0.48)5.22 (0.60)
Personal accomplishment (UBOS)pre-33.85 (0.70)33.95 (0.96)0.51 (−2.32 to 3.34)0.11
post-35.00 (0.67)34.54 (1.00)
Total work engagement (UWES)pre-64.51 (1.64)64.40 (1.95)1.91 (−2.32 to 6.15)0.17
post-66.75 (1.61)64.72 (2.00)
  Vigourpre-21.67 (0.61)21.38 (0.74)0.55 (−1.18 to 2.28)0.14
post-22.43 (0.59)21.59 (0.76)
  Dedicationpre-23.49 (0.56)25.04 (0.70)2.17 (0.51 to 3.83)*0.58
post-24.66 (0.55)24.03 (0.72)
  Absorptionpre-19.70 (0.67)18.73 (0.82)−0.58 (−2.48 to 1.32)0.12
post-20.07 (0.65)19.69 (0.84)
Empathy (JSE)pre-117.40 (1.53)116.18 (1.92)0.20 (−4.54 to 4.93)0.02
post-119.35 (1.49)117.93 (1.98)
Total mindfulness (FFMQ)pre-136.21 (2.23)135.48 (2.65)6.90 (1.42 to 12.37)c0.47
post-143.08 (2.19)135.45 (2.67)
  Observingpre-26.36 (0.69)25.85 (0.82)1.56 (−0.13 to 3.26)0.30
post-28.40 (0.68)26.33 (0.83)
  Describingpre-28.26 (0.72)28.33 (0.90)1.63 (−0.46 to 3.73)0.35
post-29.77 (0.71)28.20 (0.91)
  Acting with awarenesspre-27.12 (0.71)28.00 (0.90)1.57 (−0.55 to 3.69)0.33
post-28.10 (0.69)27.41 (0.91)
  Non-judgingpre-31.16 (0.81)30.49 (0.98)1.37 (−0.79 to 3.53)0.26
post-32.36 (0.79)30.32 (0.99)
  Non-reactingpre-23.34 (0.57)23.12 (0.70)0.75 (−0.79 to 2.29)0.19
post-24.47 (0.56)23.49 (0.70)
  • a Adjusted condition means and standard error. Participants in the waiting list control condition were included both in the intervention and control groups.

  • b Differences between conditions are adjusted for baseline values.

  • c P<0.05.

  • FFMQ = Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire. JSE = Jefferson Scale of Empathy. UBOS = Utrecht Burnout Scale. UWES = Utrecht Work Engagement Scale. On the UBOS, higher scores on the emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation subscales, and lower scores on the personal accomplishment subscale, indicate greater burnout. On the UWES, higher scores indicate greater work engagement. On the JSE, higher scores indicate greater empathy. On the FFMQ subscales, higher scores indicate greater levels of mindfulness skills.