Table 1

Risk of various outcomes related to albuminuria statusa

OutcomeEvidence of independent albuminuria associationHR (95% CI)
All-cause mortalityCompared with ACR 0.6 mg/mmol:b1.11.20 (1.15 to 1.26)9
3.41.63 (1.50 to 1.77)9
33.92.22 (1.97 to 2.51)9
Cardiovascular mortalityCompared with ACR 0.6 mg/mmol:b1.11.20 (1.15 to 1.26)9
3.41.63 (1.50 to 1.77)9
33.92.22 (1.97 to 2.51)9
Cardiovascular diseaseCompared with ACR 0–0.4 mg/mmol:c2.5–251.36 (1.12 to 1.64)10
>251.59 (1.10 to 2.37)10
Incident end-stage renal diseaseCompared with ACR <1.1 mg/mmol:d3.4–33.812.0 (7.9 to 18.1)6
≥33.972.1 (43.0 to 121)6
CKD progressionCompared with ACR 0.6 mg/mmol:d3.74.87 (2.30 to 10.3)6
33.913.4 (5.49 to 32.7)6
11328.4 (14.9 to 54.2)6
Acute kidney injuryCompared with ACR <1.2 mg/mmol:d3.4–33.82.5 (1.7 to 3.7)6
≥33.96.0 (4.5 to 8.0)6
1.2–3.31.9 (1.4 to 2.6)8
3.4–33.82.2 (1.6 to 3.0)8
≥33.94.8 (3.2 to 7.2)8
Heart failure hospitalisationCompared with ACR <0.22 mg/mmol:e0.22–0.571.19 (0.77 to 1.83)7
0.58–1.621.95 (1.32 to 2.88)7
>1.623.79 (2.65 to 5.41)7
  • a Units standardised to mg/mmol to aid comparison.

  • b Adjusted for eGFR, age, sex, ethnicity, history of cardiovascular disease (CVD), systolic blood pressure (BP), diabetes, smoking, and total cholesterol.

  • c Adjusted for age, sex, smoking, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, diabetes mellitus, and body mass index.

  • d Adjusted for estimated glomerular filtration rate, age, sex, ethnicity, history of CVD, hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, diabetes, and smoking.

  • e Adjusted for age, sex, systolic, and diastolic blood pressure, waist–hip ratio, diabetes mellitus, or glycated haemoglobin in participants with diabetes. CKD = chronic kidney disease. HR = hazard ratios in general population cohorts. ACR = albumin:creatine ratio.