Table 1.

Sample characteristicsa,b

CharacteristicMissing data, n (%)Observed valueImputed value
Age48 (10.96)c
Male, n (%)525 400 (49)
Ethnicity, n (%)499 346 (46.8)
  White304 533 (28.5)
  Indian17 401 (1.63)
  Pakistani7090 (0.66)
  Bangladeshi1866 (0.17)
  Other Indian8581 (0.80)
  Black Caribbean4706 (0.44)
  Black African12 316 (1.15)
  Chinese3933 (0.37)
  Other ethnic group207 882 (19.5)
Smoking status, n (%)45 091 (4)
  Non-smoker604 889 (57)
  Ex-smoker212 865 (20)
  Current smoker204 809 (19)
Townsend index55 370 (5)−0.92 (3.84)c−0.91 (3.85)c
Body mass index156 686 (15)26.37 (5.19)c26.37 (5.19)c
Systolic blood pressure93 989 (9)125.46 (14.69)c125.42 (14.68)c
Diastolic blood pressure94 080 (9)77.01 (9.44)c77.01 (9.43)c
Total cholesterol581 011 (54)5.29 (0.98)c5.17 (0.98)c
HDL cholesterol632 782 (59)1.47 (0.44)c1.45 (0.43)c
Family history CVD, n (%)5214 (0.15%)
Family history diabetes, n (%)9288 (0.87%)
Atrial fibrillation, n (%)1626 (0.15%)
Rheumatoid arthritis, n (%)7330 (0.69%)
Chronic kidney disease, n (%)5366 (0.50%)
Taking corticosteroids, n (%)115 186 (11%)
  • a Population aged 30–74 years, without CVD, diabetes, or prescriptions for antihypertensives or statins in THIN database (total dataset for 2013: 1 067 654).

  • b For diagnoses and other categorical variables, the absence of a clinical code is taken to mean the condition is absent.

  • c Mean (standard deviation). CVD = cardiovascular disease. THIN = The Health Improvement Network.