Table 4.

Explorative analyses of medication classes that are correlated with antibiotic prescribinga

Risk factor — type of medicines (BNF category)Change in rate of antibiotics (95% CI)b over 5th to 95th percentiles in risk factorc
NHS-DPPD, crude (95% CI)CPRD, crude (95% CI)
Proton pump inhibitors (1.3.5)316.0 (307.5 to 324.5)406.1 (365.4 to 446.8)
Renin–angiotensin system drugs (2.5.5)287.1 (277.7 to 296.5)312.7 (263.2 to 362.3)
Antiplatelet drugs (2.9)283.2 (273.9 to 292.6)346.4 (300.1 to 392.7)
Drugs used in nausea and vertigo (4.6)335.6 (326.7 to 344.5)258.9 (220.8 to 297.0)
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (4.3.3)332.6 (323.7 to 341.4)402.7 (363.2 to 442.2)
Corticosteroids (respiratory) (3.2)323.4 (314.3 to 332.5)263.2 (214.4 to 311.9)
Antispasmodic and other drugs altering gut motility (1.2)301.3 (291.4 to 311.2)299.0 (253.8 to 344.1)
Glucocorticoid therapy (6.3.2)322.0 (312.8 to 331.3)158.3 (110.5 to 206.1)
Beta-adrenoceptor blocking drugs (2.4)301.1 (292.1 to 310.1)363.0 (317.5 to 408.5)
Lipid-regulating drugs (2.12)287.9 (278.6 to 297.1)189.2 (138.7 to 239.7)
  • a Table shows the top 10 largest associations in NHS-DPPD, with corresponding results in CPRD.

  • b Per 1000 patients per year.

  • c Change in rate of antibiotic prescribing comparing practices in lower (5th) with higher (95th) percentiles of the risk factor. BNF = British National Formulary. CPRD = Clinical Practice Research Datalink. DPPD = digital practice prescribing data. IQR = interquartile range.