Table 1.

Participants’ characteristics

All participantsParticipants with CVDa
MalesFemales
Patients, n226 67085887199
Median age, years (SD)46 (18)68 (13)71 (15)
Median follow-up time, years (IQR)8.8 (5.5–8.8)8.8 (8.6–8.8)8.8 (8.4–8.8)
Coronary heart disease, n (%)9487 (4)5695 (66)3792 (53)
Heart failure, n (%)3290 (1)1466 (17)1824 (25)
Stroke, n (%)3261 (1)1665 (19)1596 (22)
Peripheral arterial disease, n (%)2846 (1)1499 (17)1347 (19)
Asthma, n (%)20 734 (9)878 (10)1193 (17)
Back/neck problems, n (%)26 136 (12)1741 (20)2132 (30)
Cancer, n (%)16 237 (7)1772 (21)1582 (22)
Congenital abnormalities of the central nervous system, n (%)138 (0)10 (0)3 (0)
Colitis, n (%)1906 (1)95 (1)86 (1)
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, n (%)8163 (4)1410 (16)1228 (17)
Dementia, n (%)1313 (1)243 (3)326 (5)
Depression, n (%)16 682 (7)712 (8)928 (13)
Diabetes, n (%)15 187 (7)2395 (28)1887 (26)
Epilepsy, n (%)1949 (1)180 (2)146 (2)
Hearing, n (%)3525 (2)553 (6)466 (6)
HIV/AIDS, n (%)332 (0)11 (0)2 (0)
Intellectual disability, n (%)965 (0)37 (0)19 (0)
Low vision, n (%)16 037 (7)2220 (26)2338 (32)
Multiple sclerosis, n (%)494 (0)12 (0)20 (0)
Osteoarthritis, n (%)15 553 (7)1419 (17)2278 (32)
Osteoporosis, n (%)5759 (3)270 (3)1115 (15)
Parkinson’s disease, n (%)694 (0)139 (2)94 (1)
Rheumatoid arthritis, n (%)3077 (1)219 (3)358 (5)
Schizophrenia, n (%)1021 (0)40 (0)28 (0)
Tuberculosis, n (%)322 (0)21 (0)12 (0)
  • a Heart failure, cerebrovascular accident, coronary heart disease, and/or peripheral arterial disease. CVD = cardiovascular disease. IQR = interquartile range. SD = standard deviation.