Table 4.

Intensity of hospital use over 2 years measured in bed-days

Frailty scale (sample size)Mean bed-days per person (SD)Rate ratios for rate of use over 2-year period (95% CI)
Non-frailFrailUnadjustedAdjusteda
Ambulatory cohort
  Fried (n = 494)17.5 (26.4)27.5 (38.1)1.7b (1.3 to 2.1)1.5c (1.2 to 1.9)
  Rothman (n = 503)17.1 (27.1)28.7 (35.5)1.7b (1.4 to 2.2)1.6b (1.2 to 2.0)
  Rockwood (n = 489)14.5 (22.7)30.9 (38.8)2.2b (1.8 to 2.8)2.1b (1.7 to 2.6)
  HFRS (n = 674)14.9 (22.9)29.6 (35.6)2.0b (1.7 to 2.4)1.9b (1.6 to 2.3)
Inpatient cohort
  Fried (n = 140)64.3 (56.6)55.8 (39.4)0.9 (0.6 to 1.2)0.9 (0.6 to 1.2)
  Rothman (n = 192)57.2 (50.7)58.2 (35.8)1.0 (0.8 to 1.3)1.0 (0.8 to 1.3)
  HFRS (n = 246)53.1 (47.2)65.2 (45.3)1.2c (1.0 to 1.5)1.2 (1.0 to 1.5)
  • a Adjusted for age and sex; however, Southampton analysis adjusted for age only (female-only cohort).

  • b Statistically significant at 0.1% level (P<0.001).

  • c Statistically significant at 5% level (P<0.05). CI = confidence interval. HFRS = Hospital Frailty Risk Score. SD = standard deviation.