Table 2.

Two-year survival by frailty status in the two cohorts

Frailty scale (sample size)Mortality percentage, % (95% CI)Hazard ratios (95% CI)
Non-frailFrailUnadjustedAdjusteda
Ambulatory cohort
  Fried (n = 494)14.9 (11.2 to 18.5)34.2 (25.5 to 42.9)2.6b (1.7 to 3.8)2.0c (1.3 to 3.0)
  Rothman (n = 503)14.3 (10.7 to 17.8)36.8 (27.9 to 45.6)2.9b (2.0 to 4.4)3.5b (1.6 to 3.7)
  Rockwood (n = 489)13.5 (9.9 to 17.2)32.2 (24.6 to 39.8)2.6b (1.7, to 3.9)2.3b (1.5 to 3.4)
  HFRS (n = 674)14.4 (11.0 to 17.8)32.5 (26.9 to 38.1)2.5b (1.8 to 3.4)2.1b (1.5 to 3.0)
Inpatient cohort
  Fried (n = 140)21.4 (5.2 to 37.6)46.4 (37.0 to 55.8)2.6c (1.1 to 6.1)2.3 (1.0 to 5.4)
  Rothman (n = 192)31.3 (22.0 to 40.6)52.7 (42.3 to 63.0)2.0c (1.3 to 3.1)1.6c (1.0 to 2.6)
  HFRS (n = 246)43.2 (32.1 to 54.2)42.4 (34.8 to 50.0)1.0 (0.7 to 1.6)1.1 (0.7 to 1.6)
  • a Adjusted for age and sex; however, Southampton analysis adjusted for age only (female-only cohort).

  • b Statistically significant at 0.1% level (P<0.001).

  • c Statistically significant at 5% level (P<0.05). HFRS = Hospital Frailty Risk Score.