Table 1.

Demographic and clinical characteristics of preschool children prescribed antibiotics for an acute RTI in the CPRD searched from 2 January 2009 to 23 September 2016, N = 114 329

Characteristicn (%)a
Median age, years (IQR)2.39 (1.39–3.66)
Sex, female54 379 (47.56)
Seasonb
  Winter41 830 (36.59)
  Spring30 110 (26.34)
  Summer15 108 (13.21)
  Autumn27 281 (23.86)
RTI typec
  URTI16 048 (14.04)
  LRTI68 634 (60.03)
  AOM28 604 (25.02)
  URTI and LRTI662 (0.58)
  Other mix381 (0.33)
Comorbidity6625 (5.79)
Antibiotic class
  Cephalosporin847 (0.74)
  Macrolides11 571 (10.12)
  Broad-spectrum penicillin (amoxicillin, co-amoxiclav)87 723 (76.73)
  Penicillinase-resistant (flucloxacillin)275 (0.24)
  Penicillin V (phenoxymethylpenicillin)13 673 (11.96)
  Quinolones7 (0.01)
  Trimethoprim-cotrimoxazole233 (0.20)
Vaccination status at index date (complete)43 401 (37.96)
Vaccination status at end of study period (complete)d106 803 (93.42)
Social deprivation quintilese
  1 (least deprived)25 125 (21.99)
  223 021 (20.14)
  320 935 (18.32)
  423 186 (20.28)
  5 (most deprived)21 994 (19.24)
  Not linked to IMD68 (0.06)
Previous response failuresf in last 12 months
  None111 281 (97.33)
  13011 (2.63)
  237 (0.03)
Median previous RTI consultations in last 12 months (IQR)4 (2–7)
Number of children with an RTI-associated antibiotic prescription during the 12 months before the index antibiotic prescription (T0)
  None95 383 (83.43)
  114 929 (13.06)
  ≥24017 (3.51)
  • a Unless specified otherwise.

  • b Seasons: winter (December to February); spring (March to May); summer (June to August); autumn (September to November).

  • c URTI: acute sinusitis, sore throat, laryngitis, coughs, for example; LRTI: pneumonia, bronchitis, for example; URTI and LRTI: a small proportion of children had both LRTI and URTI Read codes on the same consultation day.

  • d Complete set of specific vaccinations completed by age 5 years.

  • e Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) quintile based on patient-linked IMD scores 2010.

  • f Response failure was defined as the earliest occurrence of any of the following within 14 days of the index antibiotic prescription, unless specified otherwise: 1. Prescription of a subsequent antibiotic within 14 days of the initial antibiotic being prescribed to that child; 2. GP record of admission with an infection-related diagnostic code; 3. GP record of death with an infection-related diagnostic code; 4. GP record of referral to an infection-related specialist service; or 5. GP record of an emergency department visit within 3 days of antibiotic initiation. AOM = acute otitis media. CPRD = Clinical Practice Research Datalink. IQR = interquartile range. LRTI = lower respiratory tract infection. RTI = respiratory tract infection. URTI = upper respiratory tract infection.