Table 1.

Randomised controlled trials of CBT-I in general primary care with mixed-age adult samples

StudySample size, nSex, % femaleMean age, yearsCountry/regionInterventionSessions, nSession durationControl conditionIntervention delivered byEffect sizes, Cohen’s d
Bothelius et al (2013)346686.450.7SwedenCBT-I group, HT560–90 minsWait listNurses, social workers0.570.550.90
Espie et al (2001)3513968.351.4UKCBT-I group, HT650 minsMonitoringNurses0.970.480.32
Espie et al (2007)3620168.254.3UKCBT-I group560 minsTreatment as usualNurses0.580.350.130.68
Sandlund et al (2017)3716572.754.5SwedenCBT-I group, HT7 (6 + 1-month follow-up)120 minsTreatment as usualNurses0.510.390.400.621.23
Falloon et al (2015)389477.353.5New ZealandSleep restriction (brief), individual2Not specified, GP appointmentSleep hygiene guidelinesGP0.130.360.010.210.55
Wong et al (2017)3921678.256.1Hong KongMBCT-I + sleep restriction + sleep-specific cognitive therapy, group8150 minsPsychoeducationa + stretchingMBCT instructors/physiotherapists0.020.500.140.140.36
Katofsky et al (2012)408077.551.5GermanySelf-help CBT-I manual + 4-week lormetazepam start and taper, individual6Not specified, GP appointmentShort term lormetazepamGPs0.410.180.10
  • a Included stimulus control therapy and sleep hygiene. Dashes signify not reported. CBT-I = cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia. HT = hypnotic medication tapering. ISI = Insomnia Severity Index. MBCT = mindfulness-based cognitive therapy. SE = sleep efficiency. SOL = sleep onset latency. TST = total sleep time. WASO = wake after sleep onset.