Table 2.

Randomised controlled trials of CBT-I with older patients in primary care

StudySample size, nSex, % femaleMean age, yearsCountry/regionInterventionSessions, nSession durationControl conditionIntervention delivered byEffect sizes, Cohen’s d
Buysse et al (2011)417968.371.6USSleep restriction, SCT, sleep education; individual445–60 mins face to face;
20 mins telephone;
30 mins face to face;
20 mins telephone
Education (articles), 10-mins telephone callMental health nurse practitioner3.383.911.833.43
McCrae et al (2007)422065.077.2USSleep restriction, SCT relaxation; individual42 × 50-min face to face;
2 × 30-mins telephone
Sleep hygiene educationMental health workers or social workers0.821.060.991.14
Morgan et al (2012) 43a19366.366.7UKSelf-help CBT-I booklets, HT info6 bookletsWeekly bookletSleep hygiene sheetBookletb0.74
Vitiello et al (2013) 44c (two of three study arms)24577.673.1USCBT for pain and insomnia; group690 minsEducation on pain + sleep managementCounsellor, psychologistb0.40
  • a Patients had long-term conditions.

  • b Reported but not based on sleep diaries.

  • c Patients had osteoarthritis. Dashes signify not reported. CBT-I = cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia. HT = hypnotic medication tapering. ISI = Insomnia Severity Index. SCT = stimulus control therapy. SE = sleep efficiency. SOL = sleep onset latency. TST = total sleep time. WASO = wake after sleep onset.