Table 1.

Poisson regression model of physical and mental health comorbidity predicting emergency department and GP attendance, adjusted for demographic, socioeconomic, lifestyle, healthcare access, and physical health factors

Socioeconomic factorsA&E attendance, adjusted RR95% CIGP attendance, adjusted RR95% CI
  No conditions (Ref)
  Mental health condition(s)2.10a1.33 to 3.312.49b2.03 to 3.04
  Physical health condition(s)2.64b1.77 to 3.952.43b2.10 to 2.81
  Physical and mental health condition(s)4.63b2.86 to 7.513.82b3.16 to 4.62
  Age (≥65), years (Ref)
  18–242.31c1.21 to 4.420.68a0.54 to 0.86
  25–441.260.83 to 1.900.77c0.62 to 0.96
  45–641.280.87 to 1.890.81c0.67 to 0.98
  Sex (female)0.990.74 to 1.311.140.99 to 1.31
  Ethnicity (BME)0.49a0.31 to 0.800.84c0.71 to 0.99
Socioeconomic status
  Education (no qualifications) (Ref)
  Professional, vocational, or work certificate1.300.97 to 1.761.010.89 to 1.16
  Degree or higher1.210.72 to 2.040.860.74 to 1.00
  Non-employment1.84b1.39 to 2.431.41b1.24 to 1.59
  Problems with housing1.48a1.13 to 1.961.100.92 to 1.31
  Index of Multiple Deprivation1.000.99 to to 1.01
Alcohol consumption
  None (0 units) (Ref)
  Moderate (<14 units)0.940.69 to 1.280.81a0.70 to 0.94
  Heavy (14–28 units)0.710.49 to 1.050.78a0.65 to 0.92
  Very heavy (>28 units)0.790.42 to 1.481.090.80 to 1.48
Healthcare access
  Distance to GP1.310.99 to 1.741.080.87 to 1.35
  Distance to emergency department0.92b0.88 to 0.960.990.96 to 1.02
  • a P<0.05.

  • b P<0.01.

  • c P<0.001. A&E = accident and emergency department. BME = black and minority ethnic. RR = rate ratio.