Table 2.

Poisson regression model of mental health comorbidity predicting emergency department and GP attendance, adjusted for demographic, socioeconomic, lifestyle, healthcare access, and physical health factors

PredictorsA&E attendance, adjusted RR95% CIGP attendance, adjusted RR95% CI
Mental health comorbidity
  0 severe symptoms (Ref)
  1 severe symptom1.220.91 to 1.621.15a1.01 to 1.32
  2 severe symptoms1.060.69 to 1.631.92b1.31 to 2.82
  3 severe symptoms1.480.85 to 2.591.51c1.23 to 1.87
  ≥4 severe symptoms2.54b1.43 to 4.522.19c1.50 to 3.20
Demographics
  Age (≥65), years (Ref)
  18–242.66b1.38 to 5.150.65c0.52 to 0.82
  25–441.350.92 to 1.990.77a0.61 to 0.97
  45–641.290.88 to 1.890.78a0.62 to 0.97
  Sex (female)1.060.81 to 1.381.17a1.03 to 1.33
  Ethnicity (BME)0.59a0.37 to 0.940.890.74 to 1.06
Socioeconomic status
  Education (no qualifications) (Ref)
  Professional, vocational, or work certificate1.51b1.14 to 2.001.110.98 to 1.26
  Degree or higher1.550.92 to 2.610.990.86 to 1.15
  Non-employment1.52b1.13 to 2.031.25b1.08 to 1.44
  Problems with housing1.32a1.04 to 1.681.000.85 to 1.17
  Index of Multiple Deprivation1.000.99 to 1.001.001.00 to 1.01
Alcohol consumption
  None (0 units) (Ref)
  Moderate (<14 units)1.050.79 to 1.380.870.75 to 1.01
  Heavy (14–28 units)0.830.57 to 1.210.860.73 to 1.00
  Very heavy (>28 units)0.970.53 to 1.761.210.92 to 1.58
Healthcare access
  Distance to GP1.31a1.01 to 1.701.060.87 to 1.29
  Distance to emergency department0.93c0.90 to 0.960.990.96 to 1.02
Problems with physical health (EQ-5D)
  Mobility1.250.88 to 1.761.150.87 to 1.50
  Self-care2.53c1.77 to 3.621.52c1.20 to 1.92
  Usual activities1.57b1.13 to 2.201.37b1.09 to 1.73
  Pain1.39a1.03 to 1.871.55c1.31 to 1.83
  • a P<0.05.

  • b P<0.01.

  • c P<0.001. A&E = accident and emergency department. BME = black and minority ethnic. EQ-5D = EuroQol five-dimension scale. RR = rate ratio.