Table 2.

Baseline opioid usea

Opioid useEnrolled service users
n/N%b
Reported reason for original opioid prescriptionc
  Back pain9/3228.1
  Arthritis5/3215.6
  Spinal or disc degeneration/deformities5/3215.6
  Fibromyalgia4/3212.5
  Other9/3228.1
Opioid dose, mg, median (IQR)9060 to 240
Opioid drug
  Codeine17/3450.0
  Tramadol10/3429.4
  Morphine9/3426.5
  Oxycodone family7/3420.6
  Fentanyl5/3414.7
  Buprenorphine3/348.8
  Methadone1/342.9
  Multiple opioid drugs16/3447.1
Duration of use, yearsc
  0–22/296.9
  3–43/2910.3
  5–99/2931.0
  10–146/2920.7
  ≥159/2931.0
Motivation for usec
  Pain32/32100.0
  Coping with feelings4/3212.5
  Addiction/dependence3/329.4
  Sleep1/323.1
  Withdrawal allowance1/323.1)
  • a All details are self-reported except for opioid drugs.

  • b Unless stated otherwise.

  • c Denominators reflect the total number of service users for whom these data were collected. Therefore, denominators of less than 34 indicate missing data. IQR = interquartile range.