Table 1.

Baseline characteristics, medications, and presenting issuesa

CharacteristicsEnrolled service users
Female sex22/3464.7
Age, years, mean (SD)5110
White ethnicity31/31100.0
Employment statusc
Relationship statusc
Previous pain clinic usec22/3171.0
Baseline medications, excluding opioids
  SSRI antidepressants8/3423.5
  Other antidepressants6/3417.6
  SNRI antidepressants1/342.9
Psychological comorbiditiesc
  Sleep issues17/3056.7
  Anxiety/panic attacks9/29e31.0
  Experience of child abuse9/3030.0
  Social isolation7/2924.1
  Experience of domestic abuse5/2917.2
  Substance misuse3/29f10.3
  Low mood3/2910.3
  Alcohol misuse2/29f6.9
  Other mental health issues2/29f6.9
  Eating disorder1/293.4
  Post-traumatic stress disorder1/293.4
  Negative self-talk/thoughts1/293.4
  • a All details are self-reported except baseline medications.

  • b Unless otherwise stated.

  • c Denominators reflect the total number of service users for whom these data were collected. Therefore, denominators of less than 34 indicate missing data.

  • d Twelve diagnosed.

  • e Six diagnosed.

  • f All diagnosed. SNRI = serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors. SSRI = selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.