Table 1.

Study characteristics

StudyLocationScoreYearSettingAge, yearsSamplePrevalence, %ThresholdsReference standard
Alper24Bursa, TurkeyCentorMay 2007 to Apr 2008Emek Family Practice Centre7–8628211.40,1,2,3,4Throat culture
Fine11,1226 states in USCentor/McIsaac1 Sep 2006 to 1 Dec 2008Around 581 minute clinics in CVS chain across 26 states3–≥55206 87027.10,1,2,3,4
DNA probe and throat culture for RADT negatives, RADT for test positives
Little25UKCentorJan 2007 to Oct 2008General practices≥5108633.70,1,2,3,4Throat culture
Marin Cañada26Madrid, Spain (Spanish)Centor14 Feb 2005 to 12 May 2005San Fernando 2 Health Centre14–8114024.20,1,2,3,4Throat culture
Lindbæk27Stokke & Kongsberg, NorwayCentorApr 2000 to Jun 20021 general practice in Stokke and 1 in KongsbergChildren and adults30042.00,1,2,3,4Throat culture
Atlas28Massachusetts, USCentor1 Jul 2002 to 30 Jun 20032 primary care centres in Massachusetts General HospitalAdults14825.70,2,3,4Throat culture
Chazan29Nazareth, IsraelCentorDec 1999 to Mar 2000Primary care clinics of the Clalit Health Services16–8020424.50,2,4Throat culture
Seppälä30Turku, FinlandCentorJan 1986 to Mar 1986Private health centre Pulssi15–621064.70,3,4Throat culture
Regueras De Lorenzo31Asturias, Spain (Spanish)CentorJan 2008 to May 20105 primary care centres2–1419238.50,3Throat culture
Dagnelie2Utrecht, NetherlandsCentor1990 to 199253 GPs in general practice4–6055832.80,3Throat culture
Stefaniuk32Warsaw, PolandMcIsaacMar 2014 to May 2014Orlik General Practice1–≥409644.81,2,3,4,5Throat culture
Mistik33Kayseri, TurkeyMcIsaacJun 2013 to Jun 2014Bunyamin Somyurek Family Medicine Centre3–8562412.7−1,0,1,2,3,4,5Throat culture
Dunne34Melbourne, AustraliaMcIsaacWinter/spring of 2011 and 20123 general practices & ED in tertiary hospital3–7212718.9−1,1,2,3,4Throat culture and PCR
Tanz35Chicago and Cincinnati, USMcIsaac15 Nov 2004 to 15 May 20056 community-based paediatric offices3–18184829.90,1,2,3,4,5Throat swab culture, 6 had RADT
Flores Mateo36Barcelona, Spain (Spanish)McIsaacMar 2008 to May 20092 primary care centres in Castelldefels1–1421134.10,3,4,5Throat culture
McIsaac37Ontario, CanadaMcIsaacOct 1998 and Mar 199997 family physicians from 49 communitiesChildren and adults58017.2−1,1,2,3,4Throat culture
McIsaac6Toronto, CanadaMcIsaacDec 1995 to Feb 1997University-affiliated family medicine centre3–7650312.9−1,1,2,3,4Throat culture
  • ED = emergency department. PCR = polymerase chain reaction. RADT = rapid antigen detection test.