Table 1.

Characteristics of included studiesa

StudyCountry and settingPopulation detailsnStudy designFollow-upFollow-up sequencebDesigned for CoC assessment? Y/NData source(s)CoC measureAll-cause or disease-specificMortality measure mortality
Selected study populations
Wolinsky et al (2010)19US, primary careAged >70 years5457Single retrospective cohort12 yearsCoC up to 12 years with mortalityNSingle interview with documentary follow-upNo more than 8 months between visits to the same primary care practitionerAll-causeMedicare files
Worrall and Knight (2011)20Canada (Newfound land), family practiceAged >65 years with diabetes350Single retrospective cohort3 years3-year CoC with 3-year mortalityNProvincial administrative databasesUPCAll-causeMortality surveillance system
Leleu and Minvielle (2013)21France, primary careSalaried workers with ≥2 consultations, national sample325 742Single retrospective cohort3 years6-month CoC with 3-year mortalityNNational Health Insurance database recordsCOCIAll-causeNational Health Insurance database
McAlister et al (2013)22Canada (Alberta), primary careAged >20 years with acute admission with first-time diagnosis of heart failure39 249Single retrospective cohort30 days14-day + 1-year CoC then 30-day mortalityNAlberta Health Administration databasesSeen by familiar physician <14 days of dischargeAll-causeAlberta Health Care Insurance Plan Registry
Bentler et al (2014)23US, primary careAged >65 years, Medicare patients1219Single cohort5 years1-year CoC with 5-year mortalityYMailed questionnaire and record-based follow-upMultiple measuresAll causeMedicare files
Nelson et al (2014)24US, primary careVeterans with ≥2 consultations4.3 millionSingle retrospective cohort1 year1-year CoC then 1-year mortalityNVHA recordsUPCAll-causeVHA files
Shin et al (2014)25South Korea, primary careHypertension, diabetes, or hypercholesterolaemia47 433Single retrospective cohort5 years2-year CoC then 5-year mortalityNKorean National Health Insurance enroleesUPCAll-cause and CVDNational death registry
Lustman et al (2016)26Israel, primary careAged 40–75 years, type 2 diabetes23 679Single retrospective cohort2 years1+1-year CoC with 1+1-year cmortalityNHMO records databaseUPCAll-causeHMO records database
Maarsingh et al (2016)27The Netherlands, general practiceAged ≥60 years1712Single retrospective cohort17 years7–17-year CoC then 1–14-year mortalityNTriennial home interviewsHerfindahl–Hirschman IndexAll-causeLinked municipal registers
McAlister et al (2016)28Canada (Alberta), primary careAged >20 years, new diagnosis of heart failure made during an admission or ED attendance24 373Retrospective cohort6 months1-year + 1-month CoC then 6-month mortalityNAlberta Health Administration databasesUPCAll-causeAlberta Health Care Insurance Plan Registry
Geroldinger et al (2018)31Austria, all medical disciplines and general practiceAged ≥18 years with ≥2 diabetic medication records during index year51 717Single retrospective cohort3.7 years1-year CoC then mortality to study endYAustrian social security databaseBice–Boxerman Continuity of Care IndexAll-causeAustrian social security database
Entire primary care populations
Levene et al (2012)29England, general practiceAll patients51.5 millionCross-sectionaln/a2-year CoC with 2-year mortalityNNHS QOF and ONS dataAble to see preferred GPAll-cause, and CHD, cancer, stroke, COPD mortalityONS
Honeyford et al (2013)30England, general practiceAll patients, East Midlands1.7 millionCross-sectionaln/a1-year CoC with 2-year mortalityNNHS QOF and ONS dataAble to see preferred GPCHD mortalityPrimary Care Mortality Database
  • a Studies have been grouped according to whether selected or entire populations were included, and ordered by year of publication.

  • b CoC with mortality means overlapping measurement periods (mortality may extend longer); CoC then mortality means sequential measurement periods.

  • c The 2 years’ data collected and analysed separately and later combined when differences found to be statistically insignificant. CHD = coronary heart disease. CoC = continuity of care. COCI = Continuity of Care Index. COPD = chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. CVD = cardiovascular disease. ED = emergency department. HMO = Health Maintenance Organization. ONS = Office for National Statistics. QOF = Quality and Outcomes Framework. UPC = Usual Provider Continuity Index. VHA = Veterans Health Administration.