Table 1.

Characteristics of included studies

StudyTitleCountry conductedStudy designParticipants, nCancer type
Bankhead (2005)29Identifying potentially significant diagnostic factors for ovarian cancer in primary care: a qualitative and quantitative studyUKQualitative interviews11 GPs, 40 patientsOvarian cancer
Clarke et al (2014)30‘Shouting from the roof tops’: a qualitative study of how children with leukaemia are diagnosed in primary careUKQualitative interviews21 parents, 9 GPsLeukaemia
Donker et al (2016)20Determinants of general practitioner’s cancer-related gut feelings — a prospective cohort studyThe NetherlandsProspective cohort59 GPsCancer
Green et al (2015)31Cancer detection in primary care: insights from general practitionersUKQualitative interviews55 GPsCancer
Hjertholm et al (2014)34Predictive values of GPs’ suspicion of serious disease: a population-based follow-up studyDenmarkProspective cohort404 GPsCancer and serious disease
Holtedahl et al (2017)33Abdominal symptoms in general practice: frequency, cancer suspicions raised, and actions taken by GPs in six European countries. Cohort study with prospective registration of cancerNorway, Denmark, Sweden, Belgium, Netherlands, ScotlandProspective cohort493 GPs, 61 802 patients, 511 cancer patientsAbdominal cancer
Ingeman et al (2015)35The Danish cancer pathway for patients with serious non-specific symptoms and signs of cancer — a cross-sectional study of patient characteristics and cancer probabilityDenmarkCross-sectional1278 patientsCancer
Johansen et al (2012)39How does the thought of cancer arise in a general practice consultation? Interviews with GPsNorwayQualitative interviews11 GPsCancer
Oliva et al (2016)37Gut feelings in the diagnostic process of Spanish GPs: a focus group studySpainQualitative focus groups20 GPsCancer
Pedersen et al (2019)36Patient–physician relationship and use of gut feeling in cancer diagnosis in primary care: a cross-sectional survey of patients and their general practitionersDenmarkCross-sectional581 GPs 1200 patientsCancer
Robinson (2016)32What are the factors influencing GPs in the recognition and referral of suspected lung cancer?UKQualitative interviews36 GPsLung cancer
Scheel (2013)38Cancer suspicion in general practice: the role of symptoms and patient characteristics, and their association with subsequent cancerNorwayProspective cohort396 GPs, 51 073 patients, 261 patients with cancerCancer