Table 2.

Acute coronary Syndrome within 7 days of an orthopaedic visit with a corticosteroid injection

ExposureN, No ACSN, ACSCrude OR (95% CI)aAdjusted OR (95% CI)a
AllNo CSI57 76318-ref--ref-
AllCSI306877.32 (2.81 to 19.11)6.62 (2.52 to 17.36)
Aged<65 yearsNo CSI19 4072-ref- (P= 0.03)-ref- (P= 0.03)
Aged<65 yearsCSI633115.33 (1.39 to 168.75)15.49 (1.40 to 171.65)
Aged ≥65 yearsNo CSI38 35616-ref--ref-
Aged ≥65 yearsCSI243565.91 (2.07 to 16.83)5.95 (2.10 to 16.81)
FemaleNo CSI38 3597-ref--ref-
FemaleCSI212137.75 (2.00 to 30.00)6.42 (1.72 to 23.89)
MaleNo CSI19 40411-ref--ref-
MaleCSI94747.45 (1.95 to 28.44)6.67 (1.72 to 25.86)
No IHDNo CSI46 3633-ref- (P= 0.10)-ref- (P= 0.07)
No IHDCSI232716.64 (0.69 to 63.87)6.7 (0.86 to 52.39)
IHDbNo CSI11 40015-ref--ref-
IHDbCSI74166.15 (2.13 to 17.74)6.27 (2.15 to 18.29)
No smokingNo CSI36 2139-ref--ref-
No smokingCSI1913510.52 (3.08 to 35.89)8.42 (2.49 to 28.44)
SmokingbNo CSI21 5509-ref- (P= 0.07)-ref- (P= 0.08)
SmokingbCSI115524.15 (0.90 to 19.16)4.15 (0.85 to 20.41)
No hyperlipidaemiaNo CSI13 7902-ref- (P= 0.05)-ref-
No hyperlipidaemiaCSI622111.09 (1.01 to 121.85)9.03 (0.9 to 90.15)
HyperlipidaemiabNo CSI43 97316-ref--ref-
HyperlipidaemiabCSI244666.74 (2.37 to 19.21)6.22 (2.18 to 17.75)
No HTNNo CSI30 0925n/an/a
No HTNCSI13150n/an/a
HTNbNo CSI27 67113-ref--ref-
HTNbCSI175378.5 (3.12 to 23.15)8.46 (3.08 to 23.21)
No obesityNo CSI44 91011-ref--ref-
No obesityCSI224159.11 (2.76 to 30.07)7.72 (2.36 to 25.24)
ObesitybNo CSI12 8537-ref- (P= 0.06)-ref- (P= 0.07)
ObesitybCSI82724.44 (0.92 to 21.43)4.53 (0.90 to 22.7)
No DMNo CSI44 40511-ref- (P= 0.01)-ref- (P= 0.02)
No DMCSI232035.22 (1.46 to 18.72)4.72 (1.28 to 17.32)
DMbNo CSI13 3587-ref--ref-
DMbCSI748410.20 (2.48 to 41.94)9.55 (2.32 to 39.24)
No CHFNo CSI56 22416-ref--ref-
No CHFCSI298778.24 (3.11 to 21.79)7.52 (2.84 to 19.90)
CHFbNo CSI15391539n/an/a
CHFbCSI810n/an/a
<2 risk factorsNo CSI12 9121n/an/a
<2 risk factorsCSI4550n/an/a
Any two risk factorscNo CSI44 85117-ref--ref-
Any two risk factorscCSI261377.07 (2.69 to 18.57)6.92 (2.63 to 18.26)
<3 risk factorsNo CSI25 9101n/an/a
<3 risk factorsCSI10830n/an/a
Any three risk factorscNo CSI31 85317-ref--ref-
Any three risk factorscCSI198576.61 (2.51 to 17.37)6.76 (2.57 to 17.83)
  • a All P-values are <0.001 unless specifically stated otherwise.

  • b Analysis was restricted to patients who were diagnosed with the condition at/before the index orthopaedic visit, as recorded by the Clalit Health Services chronic disease register.

  • c Analysis was restricted to patients diagnosed with any two or three of the above risk factors. ACS = acute coronary syndrome. CHF = congestive heart failure. CSI = corticosteroid injection. DM = diabetes mellitus. HTN = hypertension. IHD = ischaemic heart disease. OR = odds ratio.