Table 3.

Cox regression analyses for PSA testing uptake and opportunistic screening uptake in members of the study cohort for whom data were complete (n = 2 305 998)a

PSA testingOpportunistic PSA screening
CharacteristicAdjusted HRa95% CIP-valueAdjusted HR95% CIP-value
Age (per 1-year increase)1.041.04 to 1.04<0.00011.041.04 to 1.04<0.0001
Townsend deprivation quintile
  1 (most affluent)1.001.00
  20.950.94 to 0.96<0.00010.940.94 to 0.95<0.0001
  30.880.88 to 0.89<0.00010.870.86 to 0.88<0.0001
  40.820.81 to 0.82<0.00010.790.78 to 0.80<0.0001
  5 (most deprived)0.740.73 to 0.74<0.00010.700.69 to 0.71<0.0001
Ethnicity
  White1.001.00
  Indian1.141.12 to 1.17<0.00011.161.13 to 1.18<0.0001
  Pakistani1.201.16 to 1.23<0.00011.121.08 to 1.17<0.0001
  Bangladeshi1.171.13 to 1.21<0.00010.990.94 to 1.050.729
  Other Asian1.151.12 to 1.19<0.00011.111.07 to 1.15<0.0001
  Caribbean1.601.57 to 1.64<0.00011.551.51 to 1.60<0.0001
  Black African1.441.40 to 1.48<0.00011.301.26 to 1.35<0.0001
  Chinese0.840.79 to 0.86<0.00010.800.75 to 0.86<0.0001
  Other1.331.26 to 1.40<0.00011.281.24 to 1.32<0.0001
  Not recorded0.750.74 to 0.75<0.00010.760.75 to 0.76<0.0001
Smoking status
  Non-smoker1.001.00
  Ex-smoker1.011.01 to 1.020.0030.990.98 to 0.99<0.0001
  Light smoker0.870.86 to 0.88<0.00010.840.83 to 0.85<0.0001
  Moderate smoker0.810.80 to 0.82<0.00010.780.77 to 0.79<0.0001
  Heavy smoker0.800.79 to 0.81<0.00010.760.75 to 0.77<0.0001
Family history of prostate cancer
  No1.001.00
  Yes3.103.00 to 3.19<0.00013.473.35 to 3.60<0.0001
Diabetes status
  No diabetes1.001.00
  Type 1 diabetes0.870.83 to 0.92<0.00010.470.43 to 0.51<0.0001
  Type 2 diabetes0.980.97 to 0.99<0.00010.830.82 to 0.84<0.0001
BMI category
  Underweight (<18.5 kg/m2 )1.001.00
  Healthy weight (18.5–24.9 kg/m2)1.091.05 to 1.12<0.00011.030.99 to 1.060.153
  Overweight (25.0–29.9 kg/m2 )1.151.12 to 1.18<0.00011.071.01 to 1.11<0.0001
  Obese (3.00–39.9 kg/m2)1.151.12 to 1.19<0.00011.041.01 to 1.080.019
  Severely obese (≥40 kg/m2 )1.121.08 to 1.16<0.00010.980.93 to 1.020.276
Geographical region
  East Midlands1.001.00
  East of England1.041.02 to 1.05<0.00011.071.05 to 1.09<0.0001
  London1.251.23 to 1.27<0.00011.341.32 to 1.37<0.0001
  North East0.850.83 to 0.86<0.00010.860.84 to 0.87<0.0001
  North West1.121.10 to 1.13<0.00011.121.11 to 1.14<0.0001
  South Central1.141.13 to 1.16<0.00011.211.19 to 1.23<0.0001
  South East1.411.39 to 1.43<0.00011.461.44 to 1.49<0.0001
  South West1.111.07 to 1.10<0.00011.121.10 to 1.14<0.0001
  West Midlands1.151.09 to 1.16<0.00011.201.18 to 1.22<0.0001
  Yorkshire & Humber0.910.89 to 0.93<0.00010.900.88 to 0.91<0.0001
  • a All significant risk factors identified in univariate analyses were included in a single Cox regression model, which is adjusted for all the other variables presented in the above table. BMI = body mass index. CI = confidence interval. HR = hazards ratio. PSA = prostate-specific antigen.