Table 1.

Characteristics of included studies

CharacteristicsNumber of included studies, n
Country
US14 10,2223,25,27,2932,3437,40
UK6 3,5,8,21,33,39
Australia226,28
Canada219,38
Malaysia220,24
Date study undertaken
2004–200911 3,8,10,2022,24,27,30,34,37
2010–20148 5,19,23,3133,3536
2015–20197 2526,2829,3840
Study design
Cross-sectional15 5,10,19,2425,2731,33,34,36,3839
Non-randomised controlled trial5 8,23,32,37,40
Qualitative4 3,2122,26
Randomised controlled trial220,35
Population
All registered patients17 5,19,20,22,24,2733,35,3740
Adults (>18 years old)4 8,10,25,34
Healthcare staff3 3,21,26
Children/adolescents (<21 years old)223,36
Healthcare system
Universal healthcare (UK)6 3,5,8,21,33,39
Healthcare which is a mix of government funded and private insurance (majority government funded, Canada, Australia, and Malaysia)6 19,20,24,26,28,38
Private health insurance and public health coverage (majority private insurance, US)14 10,2223,25,27,2932,3437,40