Table 4.

Adjusted associations between CXR rates with population and general practice characteristics in English general practices in 2018a

CharacteristicRate ratiosb (95% CI)P-value
Practice population characteristics
Percentage of patients who are male0.96 (0.93 to 0.99)0.004
Percentage of patients aged ≥65 years1.36 (1.30 to 1.42)<0.001
Percentage of patients who are smokers1.18 (1.13 to 1.24)<0.001
Percentage of patients on practice chronic obstructive pulmonary disease register1.05 (1.01 to 1.10)0.018
Percentage of patients on heart failure register1.09 (1.05 to 1.12)<0.001
Ethnicity category, %
  Mixed/multiple ethnic groups1.08 (1.03 to 1.14)0.003
  Asian/Asian British1.17 (1.13 to 1.22)<0.001
  Black/African/Caribbean/Black British0.93 (0.89 to 0.97)0.002
  Other ethnic groups0.97 (0.94 to 1.01)0.099
Deprivation fifthc
  F20.94 (0.88 to 0.99)0.019
  F30.87 (0.82 to 0.93)<0.001
  F40.84 (0.77 to 0.90)<0.001
  F50.93 (0.84 to 1.03)0.161
General practice characteristics
Patients per full-time equivalent GP1.00 (0.98 to 1.03)0.729
Percentage GPs who are male0.97 (0.95 to 0.99)0.017
Percentage GPs who are UK qualified1.00 (0.97 to 1.03)0.853
GP age, mean0.99 (0.96 to 1.02)0.590
Practice list size0.95 (0.92 to 0.97)<0.001
Single-handed practice0.99 (0.91 to 1.07)0.814
Practice involved in postgraduate GP training1.02 (0.98 to 1.07)0.369
Rural location1.03 (0.99 to 1.09)0.165
Percentage who gave highest rating for general practice survey for:
  Helpfulness of reception staff (access)0.94 (0.90 to 0.98)0.002
  Ability to book appointment (access)0.93 (0.90 to 0.96)<0.001
  Ability to see preferred GP (continuity)1.07 (1.04 to 1.11)<0.001
  Healthcare professional communication skills1.05 (1.01 to 1.09)0.007
  • a The rate or odds ratios correspond to the change in the rate resulting from moving from the 25 th to the 75 th centile of the exposure variable (practice team or practice population characteristic) of interest. Bold fonts used for rate ratio values ≥1.04 or ≤0.96 where P <0.01.

  • b For categorical values these are odds ratios.

  • c Derived from Index of Multiple Deprivation practice scores for 2015. F1 = least deprived; F5 = most deprived. CXR = chest X-ray.