Table 2.

Treatment initiation characteristics by diabetes subgroup and ethnicity

PopulationNon-insulin oral antidiabetic medicationsInsulin
Number eligible to initiateInitiating treatment, n (%)Years to initiation, mean (SD)Relative risk (95% CI),a P-valueNumber eligible to initiateInitiating treatment, n (%)Years to initiation, mean (SD)Relative risk (95% CI),a P-value
Overall26 42620 781 (78.6)0.9 (1.7)27 4421590 (5.8)3.7 (2.7)
MARD21 86016 781 (76.8)1.0 (1.7)1 (ref)22 6231170 (5.2)3.7 (2.7)1 (ref)
MOD24552016 (82.1)0.8 (1.6)1.16 (1.11 to 1.22), <0.0012617169 (6.5)3.8 (2.7)1.02 (0.87 to 1.21), 0.778
SHD21111984 (94.0)0.3 (1.1)1.92 (1.83 to 2.02), <0.0012202251 (11.4)3.4 (2.6)2.02 (1.76 to 2.32), <0.001
South Asian11 9219832 (82.5)0.7 (1.4)12 445563 (4.5)3.7 (2.6)
MARD10 1298196 (80.9)0.8 (1.5)1 (ref)10 518418 (4.0)3.7 (2.6)1 (ref)
MOD933804 (86.2)0.6 (1.3)1.14 (1.06 to 1.23), <0.001101760 (5.9)3.6 (2.5)0.98 (0.74 to 1.29), 0.879
SHD859832 (96.9)0.1 (0.7)2.05 (1.90 to 2.20), <0.00191085 (9.3)3.5 (2.5)2.12 (1.67 to 2.69), <0.001
White70765256 (74.3)1.1 (2)7307468 (6.4)3.9 (2.7)
MARD27341714 (62.7)1.5 (2.2)1 (ref)2837111 (3.9)3.9 (2.7)1 (ref)
MOD37493000 (80.0)0.9 (1.7)1.40 (1.29 to 1.53), <0.0013860277 (7.2)3.9 (2.8)0.92 (0.68 to 1.25), 0.597
SHD593542 (91.4)0.4 (1.3)2.43 (2.17 to 2.72), <0.00161080 (13.1)3.5 (2.6)2.00 (1.41 to 2.83), <0.001
Black54004152 (76.9)0.9 (1.7)5558448 (8.1)3.6 (2.7)
MARD41313078 (74.5)1.0 (1.8)1 (ref)4245312 (7.3)3.6 (2.7)1 (ref)
MOD709556 (78.4)0.8 (1.6)1.12 (1.02 to 1.23), 0.02273949 (6.6)3.6 (2.7)0.72 (0.53 to 0.99), 0.045
SHD560518 (92.5)0.3 (1.2)1.81 (1.64 to 2.00), <0.00157487 (15.2)3.3 (2.6)1.56 (1.21 to 2.00), <0.001
  • a Age- and sex-adjusted relative risk versus MARD (reference group). CI = confidence interval. MARD = mild age-related diabetes. MOD = mild obesity-related diabetes. Ref = reference. SD = standard deviation. SHD = severe hyperglycaemic diabetes.